RetinaCAD System



Retinal vascular biomarkers can be useful for the early detection and diagnosis of several systemic diseases, such as

  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Cerebrovascular diseases
  • Cardiovascular diseases

RetinaCAD is a computer-aided diagnosis system for fast, reliable and automatic measurement of several retinal biomarkers, namely the Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent (CRAE), the Central Retinal Venular Equivalent (CRVE), and the Arteriolar-to-Venular Ratio (AVR) values, as well as several geometrical features associated with vessel bifurcations.

Main Processing Steps:

Image Analysis Tools

  • Vessel segmentation tool
  • Optic disc localization tool
  • Optic disc segmentation tool
  • Region of interest tool
  • Graph representation tool
  • Artery/vein classification tool
  • Detection of Normal Images


  • OD center and OD radius
  • CRAE, CRAE, AVR using two different methods
  • Vessel features (vessel calibers and angles between vessel segments, …)
  • Bifurcation features (angle, bifurcation index, diameter ratio, asymmetry ratio, area ratio, optimality)

Additional Features

  • Single click option for the CRAE, CRVE and AVR estimation
  • Visualization of intermediate and final results
  • Ability to process an individual task
  • Display of vessel bifurcation/intersection features using a mouse click
  • “Follow-up mouse” tool using a second display window
  • Export reports as pdf or Excel files
  • Manual editing tools for OD center location, OD radius value, ROI definition and A/V classification



Professors: Aurélio Campilho, Ana Maria Mendonça, Jorge Silva

Researchers: Maria Inês Meyer




Image Analysis and Modeling in Ophthalmology, E. Y. K. Ng, U. R. Acharya, A. Campilho and J. S. Suri, Eds. CRC Press, 2014.

Books Chapters

A. M. Mendonça, B. Dashtbozorg, A. Campilho, “Segmentation of the vascular network of the retina,” in Image Analysis and Modeling in Ophthalmology, E. Y. K. Ng, U. R. Acharya, A. Campilho and J. S. Suri, Eds. CRC Press, 85-109, 2014.
Papers in Journals and Conference Proceedings

Articles in Journals

Behdad Dashtbozorg, Ana Maria Mendonça, Aurelio Campilho, Optic Disc Segmentation Using the Sliding Band Filter, Computers in Biology and Medicine, vol. 56, pp 1-12, 2015

Behdad Dashtbozorg, Ana Maria Mendonça, and Aurélio Campilho, An Automatic Graph-based Approach for Artery/Vein Classification in Retinal Images, IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, Vol.23, no 3, pp. 1073-1083, 2014.

Articles in Conference Proceedings

Ana Maria Mendonça, Beatriz Remeseiro, Behdad Dashtbozorg, and Aurélio Campilho, Automatic and semi-automatic approaches for arteriolar-to-venular computation in retinal photographs, SPIE Medical Imaging, Orlando, USA.

Behdad Dashtbozorg, Ana Maria Mendonca, Aurelio Campilho, Assessment of Retinal Vascular Changes through Arteriolar-to-Venular Ratio alculation, Image Analysis and Recognition, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2015, LNCS 9164, pp. 335-343, 2015.

Behdad Dashtbozorg, Ana Maria Mendonça, Susana Penas, and Aurélio Campilho, Computer-aided Diagnosis System for the Assessment of Retinal Vascular Changes, MICCAI 2014 Ophthalmic Medical Image Analysis Workshop, pp 9-16, 2014.

Behdad Dashtbozorg, Ana Maria Mendonça, and Aurélio Campilho, Assessment of Vascular Changes in Retinal Images, MeMea – IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MEMEA), Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 19-22, 2014.

Behdad Dashtbozorg, Ana Maria Mendonça, Susana Penas, Aurélio Campilho, RetinaCAD, a system for the assessment of retinal vascular changes, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC), 2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, Chicago, USA, pp. 6328-6331, 2014.