RetinaCAD System



Retinal vascular biomarkers can be useful for the early detection and diagnosis of several systemic diseases, such as

  • Hypertension
  • Diabetes
  • Cerebrovascular diseases
  • Cardiovascular diseases

RetinaCAD is a computer-aided diagnosis system for fast, reliable and automatic measurement of several retinal biomarkers, namely the Central Retinal Arteriolar Equivalent (CRAE), the Central Retinal Venular Equivalent (CRVE), and the Arteriolar-to-Venular Ratio (AVR) values, as well as several geometrical features associated with vessel bifurcations.

Main Processing Steps:

Image Analysis Tools

  • Vessel segmentation tool
  • Optic disc localization tool
  • Optic disc segmentation tool
  • Region of interest tool
  • Graph representation tool
  • Artery/vein classification tool
  • Detection of Normal Images


  • OD center and OD radius
  • CRAE, CRAE, AVR using two different methods
  • Vessel features (vessel calibers and angles between vessel segments, …)
  • Bifurcation features (angle, bifurcation index, diameter ratio, asymmetry ratio, area ratio, optimality)

Additional Features

  • Single click option for the CRAE, CRVE and AVR estimation
  • Visualization of intermediate and final results
  • Ability to process an individual task
  • Display of vessel bifurcation/intersection features using a mouse click
  • “Follow-up mouse” tool using a second display window
  • Export reports as pdf or Excel files
  • Manual editing tools for OD center location, OD radius value, ROI definition and A/V classification